Capítulo 7. Pintar con el GIMP

Tabla de contenidos

1. La selección
1.1. Difuminado
1.2. Hacer una selección parcialmente transparente
2. Creación y uso de selecciones
2.1. Desplazamiento de la selección
2.2. Adding or subtracting selections
3. The QuickMask
3.1. Generalidades
3.2. Propiedades
4. Using QuickMask Mode
5. Rutas
5.1. Path Creation
5.2. Path Properties
5.3. Rutas y selecciones
5.4. Transformación de las rutas
5.5. Trazado de una ruta
5.6. Rutas y texto
5.7. Rutas y archivos SVG
6. Brochas
7. Agregado de brochas nuevas
8. La caja de diálogo GIH
9. Brochas
9.1. You can get the brush size varying in three ways:
9.2. Two methods to create a new brush easily:
10. Degradados
11. Patrones
12. Paletas
12.1. Mapa de colores
13. Dibujar Objetos Simples
13.1. Dibujar una linea recta
13.2. Crear una forma básica

1. La selección

Often when you operate on an image, you only want part of it to be affected. In GIMP, you make this happen by selecting that part. Each image has a selection associated with it. Most, but not all, GIMP operations act only on the selected portions of the image.

Figura 7.1. ¿Cómo aislaría el árbol?

¿Cómo aislaría el árbol?

There are many, many situations where creating just the right selection is the key to getting the result you want, and often it is not easy to do. For example, in the above image, suppose I want to cut the tree out from its background, and paste it into a different image. To do this, I need to create a selection that contains the tree and nothing but the tree. It is difficult because the tree has a complex shape, and in several spots is hard to distinguish from the objects behind it.

Figura 7.2. Selection shown as usual with dashed line.

Selection shown as usual with dashed line.

Now here is a very important point, and it is crucial to understand this. Ordinarily when you create a selection, you see it as a dashed line enclosing a portion of the image. The common, not entirely accurate, idea you could get from this, is that the selection is a sort of container, with the selected parts of the image inside, and the unselected parts outside. Although this concept of selection is okay for many purposes, it is not entirely correct.

En realidad la selección está implementada como un canal. En términos de su estructura interna, es idéntico a los canales rojo, verde, azul, y alfa de una imagen. Por esto, la selección tiene un valor definido para cada píxel de la imagen, que va desde 0 (no seleccionado) hasta 255 (completamente seleccionado). La ventaja de esto es que permite que algunos píxeles se encuentren parcialmente seleccionados, dándoles valores intermedios. Como podrá observar, hay muchas situaciones en las que es preferible tener transiciones suaves entre las regiones seleccionadas y las no seleccionadas.

Pues entonces, ¿qué es esa línea de guiones que aparece cuando se crea una selección?

The dashed line is a contour line, dividing areas that are more than half selected from areas that are less than half selected.

Figura 7.3. Same selection in QuickMask mode.

Same selection in QuickMask mode.

While looking at the dashed line that represents the selection, always remember that the line tells only part of the story. If you want to see the selection in complete detail, the easiest way is to click the QuickMask button in the lower left corner of the image window. This causes the selection to be shown as a translucent overlay atop the image. Selected areas are unaffected; unselected areas are reddened. The more completely selected an area is, the less red it appears.

Many operations work differently in QuickMask mode, as mentioned in the QuickMask overview. Use the QuickMask button in the lower left corner of the image window to toggle QuickMask mode on and off.

Figura 7.4. Same selection in QuickMask mode after feathering.

Same selection in QuickMask mode after feathering.

1.1. Difuminado

With the default settings, the basic selection tools, such as the Rectangle Select tool, create sharp selections. Pixels inside the dashed line are fully selected, and pixels outside completely unselected. You can verify this by toggling QuickMask: you see a clear rectangle with sharp edges, surrounded by uniform red. Use the Feather edges checkbox in the Tool Options to toggle between graduated selections and sharp selections. The feather radius, which you can adjust, determines the distance over which the transition occurs.

If you are following along, try this with the Rectangle Select tool, and then toggle QuickMask. You will see that the clear rectangle has a fuzzy edge.

Feathering is particularly useful when you are cutting and pasting, so that the pasted object blends smoothly and unobtrusively with its surroundings.

It is possible to feather a selection at any time, even if it was originally created as a sharp selection. Use SelectFeather from the image menu to open the Feather Selection dialog. Set the feather radius and click OK. This brings up a dialog that allows you to set the feather radius. Use SelectSharpen. do the opposite—sharpen a graduated selection into an all-or-nothing selection—.

[Nota] Nota

Para lectores con una orientación técnica: el difuminado trabaja aplicando un desenfoque gaussiano al canal de selección, con el radio de desenfoque especificado.

1.2. Hacer una selección parcialmente transparente

You can set layer opacity, but you cannot do that directly for a selection. It is quite useful to make the image of a glass transparent. Use the following methods to set the layer opacity:

  • For simple selections, use the Eraser tool with the desired opacity.

  • For complex selections: use SelectionFloating to create a floating selection. This creates a new layer with the selection called Floating Selection. Set the opacity slider in the Layer Dialog to the desired opacity. Then anchor the selection: outside the selection, the mouse pointer includes an anchor. When you click while the mouse pointer includes the anchor, the floating selection disappears from the Layer Dialog and the selection is at the right place and partially transparent (anchoring works this way only if a selection tool is activated : you can also use the Anchor Layer command in the context menu by right clicking on the selected layer in the layer dialog).

    And, if you use this function frequently: Ctrl-C to copy the selection, Ctrl-V to paste the clipboard as a floating selection, and LayerNew Layer to turn the selection into a new layer. You can adjust the opacity before, or after creating the new layer.

  • Another way: use LayerMaskAdd Layer Mask to add a layer mask to the layer with the selection, initializing it with the selection. Then use a brush with the desired opacity to paint the selection with black, i-e paint it with transparency. Then Layer/Mask/Apply Layer Mask. See Sección 2.1.3, “Layer masks”.

  • To make the solid background of an image transparent, add an Alpha channel, and use the Magic Wand to select the background. Then, use the Color Picker tool to select the background color, which becomes the foreground color in Toolbox. Use the Bucket Fill tool with the selected color. Set the Bucket Fill mode to Color Erase, which erases pixels with the selected color; other pixels are partially erased and their color is changed.

    The simplest method is to use EditClear, which gives complete transparency to a selection.