Skyrius 7. Painting with GIMP


1. Pažymėjimas
1.1. Ribų išliejimas
1.2. Pažymėjimo padarymas dalinai permatomu
2. Pažymėjimų kūrimas ir naudojimas
2.1. Moving or Resizing a Selection
2.2. Adding or subtracting selections
3. The Quick Mask
3.1. Apžvalga
3.2. Savybės
4. Using Quick Mask Mode
5. Kontūrai
5.1. Path Creation
5.2. Path Properties
5.3. Kontūrai ir pažymėjimai
5.4. Kontūrų transformavimas
5.5. Kontūro apvedimas
5.6. Kontūrai ir tekstas
5.7. Kontūrai ir SVG failai
6. Teptukai
7. Naujų teptukų pridėjimas
8. GIH dialogas
9. Changing brush size
9.1. How to change the size of a brush
9.2. Greitas teptuko sukūrimas
10. Gradientai
11. Raštai
12. Paletės
12.1. Spalvų gama
13. Presets
14. Paprastų objektų piešimas
14.1. Tiesios linijos brėžimas
14.2. Elementarios formos kūrimas

1. Pažymėjimas

Often when you operate on an image, you only want part of it to be affected. In GIMP, you make this happen by selecting that part. Each image has a selection associated with it. Most, but not all, GIMP operations act only on the selected portions of the image.

Pav. 7.1. Kaip jūs atskirtumėte medį?

Kaip jūs atskirtumėte medį?

There are many, many situations where creating just the right selection is the key to getting the result you want, and often it is not easy to do. For example, in the above image, suppose I want to cut the tree out from its background, and paste it into a different image. To do this, I need to create a selection that contains the tree and nothing but the tree. It is difficult because the tree has a complex shape, and in several spots is hard to distinguish from the objects behind it.

Pav. 7.2. Selection shown as usual with dashed line.

Selection shown as usual with dashed line.

Now here is a very important point, and it is crucial to understand this. Ordinarily when you create a selection, you see it as a dashed line enclosing a portion of the image. The common, not entirely accurate, idea you could get from this, is that the selection is a sort of container, with the selected parts of the image inside, and the unselected parts outside. Although this concept of selection is okay for many purposes, it is not entirely correct.

Iš tiesų pažymėjimas yra realizuotas kaip kanalas. Kalbant jo vidinės struktūros terminais, jis yra identiškas paveikslėlio raudonam, žaliam, mėlynam ir alfa kanalams. Taigi, pažymėjime yra kiekvieno paveikslėlio pikselio reikšmė nuo 0 (nepažymėta) iki 255 (visiškai pažymėta). Šio būdo privalumas yra tai, kad jis įgalina kai kuriuos pikselius dalinai pažymėti, suteikiant jiems tarpines reikšmes tarp 0 ir 255. Kaip pamatysite, yra daug situacijų, kur pageidaujama turėti glotnų perėjimą tarp pažymėtų ir nepažymėtų sričių.

Kas tada yra ta brūkšniuota linija, atsirandanti sukūrus pažymėjimą?

The dashed line is a contour line, dividing areas that are more than half selected from areas that are less than half selected.

Pav. 7.3. Same selection in Quick Mask mode.

Same selection in Quick Mask mode.

While looking at the dashed line that represents the selection, always remember that the line only tells part of the story. If you want to see the selection in full detail, the easiest way is to click the Quick Mask button in the lower left corner of the image window. This causes the selection to be shown as a translucent overlay atop the image. Selected areas are unaffected; unselected areas are reddened. The more completely selected an area is, the less red it appears.

Many operations work differently in Quick Mask mode, as mentioned in the Quick Mask overview. Use the Quick Mask button in the lower left corner of the image window to toggle Quick Mask mode on and off.

Pav. 7.4. Same selection in Quick Mask mode after feathering.

Same selection in Quick Mask mode after feathering.

1.1. Ribų išliejimas

With the default settings, the basic selection tools, such as the Rectangle Select tool, create sharp selections. Pixels inside the dashed line are fully selected, and pixels outside completely unselected. You can verify this by toggling Quick Mask: you see a clear rectangle with sharp edges, surrounded by uniform red. Use the Feather edges checkbox in the Tool Options to toggle between graduated selections and sharp selections. The feather radius, which you can adjust, determines the distance over which the transition occurs.

If you are following along, try this with the Rectangle Select tool, and then toggle Quick Mask. You will see that the clear rectangle has a fuzzy edge.

Feathering is particularly useful when you are cutting and pasting, so that the pasted object blends smoothly and unobtrusively with its surroundings.

It is possible to feather a selection at any time, even if it was originally created as a sharp selection. Use SelectFeather from the main menu to open the Feather Selection dialog. Set the feather radius and click OK. Use SelectSharpen to do the opposite—sharpen a graduated selection into an all-or-nothing selection.

[Pastaba] Pastaba

Techniškiems naudotojams: kraštų išliejimas sukuriamas pažymėtame kanale pritaikant Gauso suliejimą nurodant išliejimo spindulį.

1.2. Pažymėjimo padarymas dalinai permatomu

You can set layer opacity, but you cannot do that directly for a selection. It is quite useful to make the image of a glass transparent. Use the following methods to set the layer opacity:

  • For simple selections, use the Eraser tool with the desired opacity.

  • For complex selections: use SelectFloat to create a floating selection. This creates a new layer with the selection called Floating Selection (Skyrius 4.5, „Plaukiojantį“). Set the opacity slider in the Layers dialog to the desired opacity. Then anchor the selection: outside the selection, the mouse pointer includes an anchor. When you click while the mouse pointer includes the anchor, the floating selection disappears from the Layers dialog and the selection is at the right place and partially transparent (anchoring works this way only if a selection tool is activated: you can also use the Anchor Layer command in the context menu by right clicking on the selected layer in the Layers dialog).

    And, if you use this function frequently: Ctrl-C to copy the selection, Ctrl-V to paste the clipboard as a floating selection, and LayerNew Layer… to turn the selection into a new layer. You can adjust the opacity before, or after creating the new layer.

  • Another way: use LayerMaskAdd Layer Masks… to add a layer mask to the layer with the selection, initializing it with the selection. Then use a brush with the desired opacity to paint the selection with black, i.e. paint it with transparency. Then LayerMaskApply Layer Mask. See Skyrius 2.1.4, „Sluoksnių kaukės“.

  • To make the solid background of an image transparent, add an Alpha channel, and use the Magic Wand to select the background. Then, use the Color Picker tool to select the background color, which becomes the foreground color in Toolbox. Use the Bucket Fill tool with the selected color. Set the Bucket Fill mode to Color Erase, which erases pixels with the selected color; other pixels are partially erased and their color is changed.

    The simplest method is to use EditClear, which gives complete transparency to a selection.